Neal Benowitz, MD

Professor

Dr. Neal Benowitz practices outpatient cardiology at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital. He is also trained in Clinical Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, with particular interest in autonomic failure/blood pressure dysregulation syndromes and drug and chemical induced cardiopulmonary toxicity. Dr. Benowitz’s research focuses on prevention and management of tobacco and other drug-induced cardiovascular disease.

Dr. Benowitz received his medical degree from the University of Rochester, did residency at the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center and fellowship at UCSF. He has been on the faculty at UCSF since 1973, was Chief of the Division of Clinical Pharmacology at UCSF for more then 30 years, and is now Professor of Medicine Emeritus.
Education
Residency, - School of Medicine - Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
Websites
Publications
  1. Recruitment best practices of a cardiovascular risk reduction randomised control trial in rural Alaska Native communities.
  2. Relationships between race, gender, and spot urine levels of biomarkers of tobacco exposure vary based on how creatinine is handled in analyses.
  3. Australian smokers' experiences and perceptions of recessed and firm filter cigarettes.
  4. Corrigendum to: Changes in Use Patterns Over 1 Year Among Smokers and Dual Users of Combustible and Electronic Cigarettes.
  5. Exposure to a Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen Among Adolescent Smokeless Tobacco Users in Rural California, United States.
  6. Relations among cigarette dependence, e-cigarette dependence, and key dependence criteria among dual users of combustible and e-cigarettes.
  7. Comprehensive Parent-Metabolite PBPK/PD Modeling Insights into Nicotine Replacement Therapy Strategies.
  8. A Mobile Health Intervention for Adolescents Exposed to Secondhand Smoke: Pilot Feasibility and Efficacy Study.
  9. Biomarkers of Exposure to Nicotine and Tobacco-specific Nitrosamines in Adolescent Blunt Users.
  10. Effects of Nicotine Metabolic Rate on Cigarette Reinforcement.
  11. Cigarette Smoking and ARDS After Blunt Trauma: The Influence of Changing Smoking Patterns and Resuscitation Practices.
  12. Cultural and demographic correlates of dual tobacco use in a sample of Alaska Native adults who smoke cigarettes.
  13. Biochemical Verification of Tobacco Use and Abstinence: 2019 Update.
  14. Biomarkers of Exposure for Dual Use of Electronic Cigarettes and Combustible Cigarettes: Nicotelline, NNAL, and Total Nicotine Equivalents.
  15. Characterization of Nicotine Salts in 23 Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids.
  16. Development and Piloting Testing of An Experimental Tobacco and Nicotine Product Marketplace.
  17. Changes in Use Patterns OVER ONE YEAR Among Smokers and Dual Users of Combustible and electronic cigarettes.
  18. E-cigarette Dependence Measures in Dual Users: Reliability and Relations with Dependence Criteria and E-Cigarette Cessation.
  19. Evaluation of nicotine patch adherence measurement using self-report and saliva cotinine among abstainers in a smoking cessation trial.
  20. Peripheral Blood Flow Changes to Cutaneous and Muscular Beds in Response to Acute Hookah Smoking.
  21. Comparison of smoking cessation rates of Quitline users in Korea between smokers of ultra-low nicotine yield cigarettes and other types of cigarette: a prospective study.
  22. Mouth-Level Nicotine Intake Estimates from Discarded Filter Butts to Examine Compensatory Smoking in Low Nicotine Cigarettes.
  23. The Impact of Exclusive Use of Very Low Nicotine Cigarettes on Compensatory Smoking: An Inpatient Crossover Clinical Trial.
  24. Relationships between the nicotine metabolite ratio and a panel of exposure and effect biomarkers: findings from two studies of U.S. commercial cigarette smokers.
  25. Twenty-four Hour Subjective and Pharmacological Effects of Ad Libitum Electronic and Combustible Cigarette Use among Dual Users.
  26. Urine Metabolites for Estimating Daily Intake of Nicotine from Cigarette Smoking.
  27. Differences in nicotine intake and effects from electronic and combustible cigarettes among dual users.
  28. Seizures After Vaping Nicotine in Youth: A Canary or a Red Herring?
  29. Effects of Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes on Smoking Behavior and Biomarkers of Exposure in Menthol and Non-menthol Smokers.
  30. The Role of Compensation in Nicotine Reduction.
  31. Sources and Biomarkers of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents.
  32. The influence of nicotine metabolic rate on working memory over 6 hours of abstinence from nicotine.
  33. Effect of e-cigarette flavors on nicotine delivery and puffing topography: results from a randomized clinical trial of daily smokers.
  34. Impact of Early Nausea on Varenicline Adherence and Smoking Cessation.
  35. Current advances in research in treatment and recovery: Nicotine addiction.
  36. Factors that Explain Differences in Abstinence between Black and White Smokers: A Prospective Intervention Study.
  37. E-Hookah Versus E-Cigarettes: Findings From Wave 2 of the PATH Study (2014-2015).
  38. Comparison of systemic exposure to toxic and/or carcinogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during vaping, smoking, and abstention.
  39. Quantitative biochemical screening for marijuana use and concordance with tobacco use in urban adolescents.
  40. E-cigarettes and dual nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation.
  41. Reductions in urinary metabolites of exposure to household air pollution in pregnant, rural Guatemalan women provided liquefied petroleum gas stoves.
  42. Relationship between skin melanin index and nicotine pharmacokinetics in African American smokers.
  43. Cardiovascular Effects of Hookah Smoking: Potential Implications for Cardiovascular Risk.
  44. Dual Users Compared to Smokers: Demographics, Dependence, and Biomarkers.
  45. Differences in exposure to toxic and/or carcinogenic volatile organic compounds between Black and White cigarette smokers.
  46. JUUL electronic cigarettes: Nicotine exposure and the user experience.
  47. Cytisine for nicotine addiction treatment: A review of pharmacology, therapeutics and an update of clinical trial evidence for smoking cessation.
  48. Effects of immediate versus gradual nicotine reduction in cigarettes on biomarkers of biological effects.
  49. Black Light Smokers: How Nicotine Intake and Carcinogen Exposure Differ Across Various Biobehavioral Factors.
  50. High Carbon Monoxide Levels from Charcoal Combustion Mask Acute Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Hookah (Waterpipe) Smoking in Young Adults.
  51. Longitudinal stability in cigarette smokers of urinary eicosanoid biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation.
  52. Randomized within-subject trial to evaluate smokers' initial perceptions, subjective effects and nicotine delivery across six vaporized nicotine products.
  53. Predictors of Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events with Smoking Cessation Medications in the Randomized Controlled EAGLES Trial.
  54. Neuropsychiatric Safety and Efficacy of Varenicline, Bupropion, and Nicotine Patch in Smokers With Psychotic, Anxiety, and Mood Disorders in the EAGLES Trial.
  55. Vascular Aging is Accelerated in Flight Attendants with Occupational Secondhand Smoke Exposure.
  56. Evaluation of a weighted genetic risk score for the prediction of biomarkers of CYP2A6 activity.
  57. Loperamide associated torsades de pointes, in the setting of complete heart block at marginally supratherapeutic dosing (20mg/day).
  58. Butanediol Conversion to Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Markedly Reduced by the Alcohol Dehydrogenase Blocker Fomepizole.
  59. Evaluating the temporal relationships between withdrawal symptoms and smoking relapse.
  60. Longitudinal stability in cigarette smokers of urinary biomarkers of exposure to the toxicants acrylonitrile and acrolein.
  61. Managing Cannabis Use in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.
  62. Identification and quantification of electronic cigarette exhaled aerosol residue chemicals in field sites.
  63. Reprint of: Prevention and Treatment of Tobacco Use: JACC Health Promotion Series.
  64. 2018 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on Tobacco Cessation Treatment: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents.
  65. Urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3) pyridyl-1-butanol and cotinine in Alaska native postpartum women and neonates comparing smokers and smokeless tobacco users.
  66. Effects of Nicotine Metabolic Rate on Withdrawal Symptoms and Response to Cigarette Smoking After Abstinence.
  67. Biomarker feedback intervention for smoking cessation among Alaska Native pregnant women: Randomized pilot study.
  68. Effect of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) on driving as measured by a driving simulator.
  69. Effect of Immediate vs Gradual Reduction in Nicotine Content of Cigarettes on Biomarkers of Smoke Exposure: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
  70. Electronic cigarette chemicals transfer from a vape shop to a nearby business in a multiple-tenant retail building.
  71. IQOS: examination of Philip Morris International's claim of reduced exposure.
  72. Prevention and Treatment of Tobacco Use: JACC Health Promotion Series.
  73. Association of Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes With Smoking Behaviors and Biomarkers of Exposure Among Slow and Fast Nicotine Metabolizers: A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial.
  74. Another Article About E-Cigarettes: Why Should I Care?
  75. Stimulant drugs are associated with violent and penetrating trauma.
  76. Nicotine Reduction Strategy: State of the science and challenges to tobacco control policy and FDA tobacco product regulation.
  77. Secondhand smoke exposure and asthma outcomes among African-American and Latino children with asthma.
  78. Response to "Rapid Nicotine Ratio and Successful Quitting: Acceptable Explanation" by the Authors of "Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) Prospectively Predicts Smoking Relapse: Longitudinal Findings from ITC Surveys in Five Countries".
  79. The Healing and Empowering Alaskan Lives Toward Healthy-Hearts (HEALTHH) Project: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of an intervention for tobacco use and other cardiovascular risk behaviors for Alaska Native People.
  80. Collaborative Method Performance Study of the Measurement of Nicotine, Its Metabolites, and Total Nicotine Equivalents in Human Urine.
  81. Impact of e-liquid flavors on e-cigarette vaping behavior.
  82. Cardiovascular Safety of Varenicline, Bupropion, and Nicotine Patch in Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
  83. Factors associated with the efficacy of smoking cessation treatments and predictors of smoking abstinence in EAGLES.
  84. Whether to push or pull? Nicotine reduction and non-combusted alternatives - Two strategies for reducing smoking and improving public health.
  85. Adolescent Exposure to Toxic Volatile Organic Chemicals From E-Cigarettes.
  86. Effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes on individual withdrawal symptoms over time and during abstinence.
  87. Lung Microbiota is Related to Smoking Status and to Development of ARDS in Critically Ill Trauma Patients.
  88. Short-term early exposure to thirdhand cigarette smoke increases lung cancer incidence in mice.
  89. Comparison of Urine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)Pyridyl-1-Butanol and Cotinine for Assessment of Active and Passive Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents.
  90. Tobacco Consumption and Toxicant Exposure of Cigarette Smokers Using Electronic Cigarettes.
  91. Cigarette Filter Ventilation and its Relationship to Increasing Rates of Lung Adenocarcinoma.
  92. Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers.
  93. Genome-wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences.
  94. An Electronic Cigarette Vaping Machine for the Characterization of Aerosol Delivery and Composition.
  95. Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) Prospectively Predicts Smoking Relapse: Longitudinal Findings From ITC Surveys in Five Countries.
  96. Urine Cotinine Screening Detects Nearly Ubiquitous Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents.
  97. Tobacco toxicant exposure in cigarette smokers who use or do not use other tobacco products.
  98. Comprehensive Nicotine Regulation to End the Combustible Tobacco Epidemic.
  99. Emissions from Electronic Cigarettes: Assessing Vapers' Intake of Toxic Compounds, Secondhand Exposures, and the Associated Health Impacts.
  100. Urinary NNAL in hookah smokers and non-smokers after attending a hookah social event in a hookah lounge or a private home.
  101. Measures and predictors of varenicline adherence in the treatment of nicotine dependence.
  102. Impact of e-liquid flavors on nicotine intake and pharmacology of e-cigarettes.
  103. Nicotine biomarkers and rate of nicotine metabolism among cigarette smokers taking buprenorphine for opioid dependency.
  104. Biomarkers of exposure to new and emerging tobacco delivery products.
  105. Effect of UGT2B10, UGT2B17, FMO3, and OCT2 genetic variation on nicotine and cotinine pharmacokinetics and smoking in African Americans.
  106. Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes.
  107. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women cooking and heating with solid fuels.
  108. Early exposure to thirdhand cigarette smoke affects body mass and the development of immunity in mice.
  109. Thirdhand Smoke: New Evidence, Challenges, and Future Directions.
  110. Severe Carisoprodol Withdrawal After a 14-Year Addiction and Acute Overdose.
  111. Reducing nicotine exposure results in weight gain in smokers randomised to very low nicotine content cigarettes.
  112. Perceived risks and reasons to smoke cigarettes during pregnancy among Alaska native women.
  113. Smoking Cessation, Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.
  114. Nicotine Delivery and Vaping Behavior During ad Libitum E-cigarette Access.
  115. Nicotine Replacement, Topography, and Smoking Phenotypes of E-cigarettes.
  116. "You have the right to protect your health": Perceptions of Secondhand Smoke and Exposure Mitigation Strategies in Low-Income Patients With Heart Disease, San Francisco, 2011-2012.
  117. Reduced nicotine content cigarettes, e-cigarettes and the cigarette end game.
  118. Exposure to Nicotine and Selected Toxicants in Cigarette Smokers Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes: A Longitudinal Within-Subjects Observational Study.
  119. Effects of 6-Week Use of Reduced-Nicotine Content Cigarettes in Smokers With and Without Elevated Depressive Symptoms.
  120. Estimations and predictors of non-compliance in switchers to reduced nicotine content cigarettes.
  121. Disposition kinetics and metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in African American smokers: impact of CYP2A6 genetic variation and enzymatic activity.
  122. E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke.
  123. Fetal Exposure to Carcinogens With Tobacco Use in Pregnancy: Phase 1 MAW Study Findings.
  124. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.
  125. Genome-Wide Association of the Laboratory-Based Nicotine Metabolite Ratio in Three Ancestries.
  126. Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (EAGLES): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
  127. Cessation of alcohol consumption decreases rate of nicotine metabolism in male alcohol-dependent smokers.
  128. Nicotine and Anatabine Exposure from Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes.
  129. The Influence of Puff Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Rate of Nicotine Metabolism on Daily Nicotine Exposure in African American Smokers.
  130. Acute Effect of Hookah Smoking on the Human Coronary Microcirculation.
  131. Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: Implications for electronic cigarette use.
  132. Minoxidil-Associated Pleuropericardial Effusion.
  133. Thirdhand Smoke: State of the Science and a Call for Policy Expansion.
  134. A clinical trial to examine disparities in quitting between African-American and White adult smokers: Design, accrual, and baseline characteristics.
  135. Thirdhand smoke contamination in hospital settings: assessing exposure risk for vulnerable paediatric patients.
  136. Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes.
  137. Randomized Trial of Reduced-Nicotine Standards for Cigarettes.
  138. Cardiovascular Effects of Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarettes: Clinical Perspectives From the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Section Leadership Council and Early Career Councils of the American College of Cardiology.
  139. Cigarette Smoke Exposure and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
  140. Smoking cessation and the cardiovascular patient.
  141. The Past, Present, and Future of Nicotine Addiction Therapy.
  142. Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up.
  143. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.
  144. Lack of Associations of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genetic Variants with Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Caucasian Smokers despite Associations with Baseline Smoking.
  145. Nicotine metabolite ratio (3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) in plasma and urine by different analytical methods and laboratories: implications for clinical implementation.
  146. Nicotine Metabolite Ratio Is Associated With Lozenge Use But Not Quitting in Smokeless Tobacco Users.
  147. Genetic and phenotypic variation in UGT2B17, a testosterone-metabolizing enzyme, is associated with BMI in males.
  148. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users.
  149. Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery systems into tobacco worksite policy.
  150. Response to letter regarding article, "Electronic cigarettes: a scientific review".
  151. Use of the nicotine metabolite ratio as a genetically informed biomarker of response to nicotine patch or varenicline for smoking cessation: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
  152. Nicotine Dependence, Nicotine Metabolism, and the Extent of Compensation in Response to Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes.
  153. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among hospitalized nonsmokers with coronary heart disease.
  154. Different profiles of carcinogen exposure in Chinese compared with US cigarette smokers.
  155. Compensatory smoking from gradual and immediate reduction in cigarette nicotine content.
  156. Biochemical estimation of noncompliance with smoking of very low nicotine content cigarettes.
  157. Intake of toxic and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds from secondhand smoke in motor vehicles.
  158. Cardiogenic shock after use of fluoroamphetamine confirmed with serum and urine levels.
  159. UGT1A and UGT2B genetic variation alters nicotine and nitrosamine glucuronidation in european and african american smokers.
  160. Gene variants in CYP2C19 are associated with altered in vivo bupropion pharmacokinetics but not bupropion-assisted smoking cessation outcomes.
  161. Prevalence and impact of active and passive cigarette smoking in acute respiratory distress syndrome.
  162. Electronic cigarettes: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.
  163. Organic cation transporter variation and response to smoking cessation therapies.
  164. Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit.
  165. Reduced nicotine product standards for combustible tobacco: building an empirical basis for effective regulation.
  166. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars.
  167. E-cigarettes: a scientific review.
  168. Electronic cigarettes. Cardiology patient page.
  169. A comparison of nicotine biomarkers and smoking patterns in daily and nondaily smokers.
  170. Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 SNP rs2036527 with smoking cessation therapy response in African-American smokers.
  171. Children's exposure to secondhand and thirdhand smoke carcinogens and toxicants in homes of hookah smokers.
  172. Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption.
  173. Emerging nicotine delivery products. Implications for public health.
  174. Novel CYP2A6 variants identified in African Americans are associated with slow nicotine metabolism in vitro and in vivo.
  175. Cigarette smoke toxins deposited on surfaces: implications for human health.
  176. Multiple risk-behavior profiles of smokers with serious mental illness and motivation for change.
  177. Clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects and their relationships with nicotine metabolism: preliminary results from a pilot study.
  178. Cotinine and tobacco-specific carcinogen exposure among nondaily smokers in a multiethnic sample.
  179. Factors associated with discontinuation of bupropion and counseling among African American light smokers in a randomized clinical trial.
  180. Delayed bupropion cardiotoxicity associated with elevated serum concentrations of bupropion but not hydroxybupropion.
  181. Nicotelline: a proposed biomarker and environmental tracer for particulate matter derived from tobacco smoke.
  182. Levels of cotinine in dried blood specimens from newborns as a biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery.
  183. Influence of a dopamine pathway additive genetic efficacy score on smoking cessation: results from two randomized clinical trials of bupropion.
  184. Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure.
  185. Cytisine, the world's oldest smoking cessation aid.
  186. The regulatory challenge of electronic cigarettes.
  187. Genetic and pharmacokinetic determinants of response to transdermal nicotine in white, black, and Asian nonsmokers.
  188. Variation in trans-3'-hydroxycotinine glucuronidation does not alter the nicotine metabolite ratio or nicotine intake.
  189. CHRNA5-A3-B4 genetic variants alter nicotine intake and interact with tobacco use to influence body weight in Alaska Native tobacco users.
  190. CYP2A6 genotype but not age determines cotinine half-life in infants and children.
  191. Stability of the nicotine metabolite ratio in smokers of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes.
  192. Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive.
  193. Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes.
  194. Comparison of nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking.
  195. Influence of CYP2B6 genetic variants on plasma and urine concentrations of bupropion and metabolites at steady state.
  196. Smoking cessation after acute myocardial infarction.
  197. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor variation and response to smoking cessation therapies.
  198. The ability of plasma cotinine to predict nicotine and carcinogen exposure is altered by differences in CYP2A6: the influence of genetics, race, and sex.
  199. Biomarkers of secondhand smoke exposure in automobiles.
  200. Dose-independent kinetics with low level exposure to nicotine and cotinine.
  201. Race, gender, and nicotine metabolism in adolescent smokers.
  202. The DRD4 exon III VNTR, bupropion, and associations with prospective abstinence.
  203. Predictors of cessation in African American light smokers enrolled in a bupropion clinical trial.
  204. Particulate mass and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure from secondhand smoke in the back seat of a vehicle.
  205. CYP2B6 and bupropion's smoking-cessation pharmacology: the role of hydroxybupropion.
  206. Air quality, mortality, and economic benefits of a smoke - free workplace law for non-smoking Ontario bar workers.
  207. Racial differences in the relationship between tobacco dependence and nicotine and carcinogen exposure.
  208. Nicotine reduction: strategic research plan.
  209. Correlates of NNAL levels among nondaily and daily smokers in the college student population.
  210. Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers.
  211. Alaska Native smokers and smokeless tobacco users with slower CYP2A6 activity have lower tobacco consumption, lower tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposure and lower tobacco-specific nitrosamine bioactivation.
  212. Tobacco use among southwestern Alaska Native people.
  213. Assessing secondhand smoke using biological markers.
  214. Determination of tobacco smoke exposure by plasma cotinine levels in infants and children attending urban public hospital clinics.
  215. Nicotine intake and smoking topography in smokers with bipolar disorder.
  216. Very low nicotine content cigarettes and potential consequences on cardiovascular disease.
  217. Population approaches to improve diet, physical activity, and smoking habits: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
  218. DRD1 associations with smoking abstinence across slow and normal nicotine metabolizers.
  219. CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 genetic variation and its association with nicotine metabolism in South Western Alaska Native people.
  220. The exposure-dependent effects of aged secondhand smoke on endothelial function.
  221. High dose transdermal nicotine for fast metabolizers of nicotine: a proof of concept placebo-controlled trial.
  222. Reproducibility of the nicotine metabolite ratio in cigarette smokers.
  223. Exposure to nicotine and carcinogens among Southwestern Alaskan Native cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users.
  224. Exposure and kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smokers.
  225. Adherence to varenicline among African American smokers: an exploratory analysis comparing plasma concentration, pill count, and self-report.
  226. Smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants during 6 months of smoking progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes.
  227. Effects of menthol on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion among Black smokers.
  228. Rapid smoking may not be aversive in schizophrenia.
  229. Bupropion for smoking cessation in African American light smokers: a randomized controlled trial.
  230. Chronic disease management approach to treating tobacco addiction: comment on "Nicotine therapy sampling to induce quit attempts among smokers unmotivated to quit".
  231. Gene-centric analysis of serum cotinine levels in African and European American populations.
  232. Cannabinoid-opioid interaction in chronic pain.
  233. Smoking cessation pharmacogenetics: analysis of varenicline and bupropion in placebo-controlled clinical trials.
  234. Effect of nicotine on cytochrome P450 1A2 activity.
  235. Cardiology Rx for Change: improving clinical attention to tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure in cardiology.
  236. Nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carcinogen exposure after a single use of a water pipe.
  237. Sodium oxybate: updates and correction to previously published safety data.
  238. Smokeless tobacco as a nicotine delivery device: harm or harm reduction?
  239. Gender-stratified gene and gene-treatment interactions in smoking cessation.
  240. Cigarette smoking, nicotine, and body weight.
  241. Thirdhand tobacco smoke: emerging evidence and arguments for a multidisciplinary research agenda.
  242. Shorter interpuff interval is associated with higher nicotine intake in smokers with schizophrenia.
  243. Racial differences in the relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine and carcinogen exposure.
  244. The threat of menthol cigarettes to U.S. public health.
  245. Do biological differences help explain tobacco-related disparities?
  246. Attitudes and practices of hookah smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area.
  247. Genetic variability of smoking persistence in African Americans.
  248. Active and passive cigarette smoking and acute lung injury after severe blunt trauma.
  249. Association of the nicotine metabolite ratio and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 polymorphisms with smoking rate among treatment-seeking smokers.
  250. Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data.
  251. Comparison of urine cotinine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and their ratio to discriminate active from passive smoking.
  252. Treatment of nicotine addiction: present therapeutic options and pipeline developments.
  253. Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts smoking topography and carcinogen biomarker level.
  254. Biomarkers increase detection of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in critically ill patients.
  255. Determination of the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in biologic fluids of smokers and non-smokers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure and for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2
  256. Cautions and warnings on the US OTC label for nicotine replacement: what's a doctor to do?
  257. Impact of smoking on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease receiving contemporary medical therapy (from the Treating to New Targets [TNT] and the Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering [IDEAL] trials).
  258. Urine menthol as a biomarker of mentholated cigarette smoking.
  259. Nicotine reduction revisited: science and future directions.
  260. Impact of smokeless tobacco products on cardiovascular disease: implications for policy, prevention, and treatment: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.
  261. Urine cotinine underestimates exposure to the tobacco-derived lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in passive compared with active smokers.
  262. Carbamazepine but not valproate induces CYP2A6 activity in smokers with mental illness.
  263. Nicotine deprivation and pilot performance during simulated flight.
  264. Environmental and biological monitoring of exposures to PAHs and ETS in the general population.
  265. Higher nicotine levels in schizophrenia compared with controls after smoking a single cigarette.
  266. Nicotine addiction.
  267. Chinese 'low-tar' cigarettes do not deliver lower levels of nicotine and carcinogens.
  268. Estimation of nicotine dose after low-level exposure using plasma and urine nicotine metabolites.
  269. What is the role of lidocaine or phenytoin in tricyclic antidepressant-induced cardiotoxicity?
  270. Genetic variation in nicotine metabolism predicts the efficacy of extended-duration transdermal nicotine therapy.
  271. Higher serum caffeine in smokers with schizophrenia compared to smoking controls.
  272. Varenicline and pheochromocytoma.
  273. Secondhand smoke and infectious disease in adults: A global women's health concern: Comment on "Passive Smoking and Tuberculosis".
  274. Effects of nicotine on cytochrome P450 2A6 and 2E1 activities.
  275. New CYP2A6 gene deletion and conversion variants in a population of Black African descent.
  276. Efficacy and safety of varenicline for smoking cessation in patients with cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial.
  277. Chinese "herbal" cigarettes are as carcinogenic and addictive as regular cigarettes.
  278. Elimination kinetics of the tobacco-specific biomarker and lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol.
  279. Utility and relationships of biomarkers of smoking in African-American light smokers.
  280. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: a round-robin study.
  281. Counseling to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure and help parents quit smoking: a controlled trial.
  282. Genetic influences on individual differences in nicotine glucuronidation.
  283. Prevalence of smoking assessed biochemically in an urban public hospital: a rationale for routine cotinine screening.
  284. Safety overview of postmarketing and clinical experience of sodium oxybate (Xyrem): abuse, misuse, dependence, and diversion.
  285. Longer term exposure to secondhand smoke and health outcomes in COPD: impact of urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol.
  286. A systems biology network model for genetic association studies of nicotine addiction and treatment.
  287. Urine nicotine metabolite concentrations in relation to plasma cotinine during low-level nicotine exposure.
  288. Genome-wide linkage of cotinine pharmacokinetics suggests candidate regions on chromosomes 9 and 11.
  289. Calibrating self-reported measures of maternal smoking in pregnancy via bioassays using a Monte Carlo approach.
  290. Dopamine genes and nicotine dependence in treatment-seeking and community smokers.
  291. Genetic and environmental influences on the ratio of 3'hydroxycotinine to cotinine in plasma and urine.
  292. Impact of an indoor smoking ban on bar workers' exposure to secondhand smoke.
  293. Association of nicotine metabolite ratio and CYP2A6 genotype with smoking cessation treatment in African-American light smokers.
  294. Progressive commercial cigarette yield reduction: biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment.
  295. Withdrawal in adolescent light smokers following 24-hour abstinence.
  296. Nicotine chemistry, metabolism, kinetics and biomarkers.
  297. Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction, smoking-induced disease, and therapeutics.
  298. Optimal serum cotinine levels for distinguishing cigarette smokers and nonsmokers within different racial/ethnic groups in the United States between 1999 and 2004.
  299. Nicotine metabolic rate predicts successful smoking cessation with transdermal nicotine: a validation study.
  300. Subpicogram per milliliter determination of the tobacco-specific carcinogen metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
  301. A randomized trial of nicotine nasal spray in adolescent smokers.
  302. Dopamine and opioid gene variants are associated with increased smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood.
  303. Gene and gene by sex associations with initial sensitivity to nicotine in nonsmokers.
  304. Nicotine and postoperative management of pain.
  305. Rate of nicotine metabolism and withdrawal symptoms in adolescent light smokers.
  306. Smoking behavior in men hospitalized with cardiovascular disease in Korea: a cross-sectional descriptive study.
  307. Nicotine metabolism in pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits.
  308. Mitochondrial DNA content: its genetic heritability and association with renal cell carcinoma.
  309. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2 subunit gene implicated in a systems-based candidate gene study of smoking cessation.
  310. Creating and evaluating genetic tests predictive of drug response.
  311. Assessing dimensions of nicotine dependence: an evaluation of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM).
  312. Dietary supplement adverse events: report of a one-year poison center surveillance project.
  313. Chocolate consumption in pregnancy and reduced likelihood of preeclampsia.
  314. Genetic influences in the variation in renal clearance of nicotine and cotinine.
  315. Toward personalized therapy for smoking cessation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial of bupropion.
  316. Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment.
  317. Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions.
  318. Prenatal caffeine assessment: fetal and maternal biomarkers or self-reported intake?
  319. Clinical pharmacology of nicotine: implications for understanding, preventing, and treating tobacco addiction.
  320. Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil.
  321. Gene-gene interactions between CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism.
  322. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure with smoking of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarette.
  323. Mutagen sensitivity and genetic variants in nucleotide excision repair pathway: genotype-phenotype correlation.
  324. Secondhand smoke exposure in Mexican discotheques.
  325. Cytisine for smoking cessation: a research agenda.
  326. Beliefs about health, smoking, and future smoking cessation among South Korean men hospitalized for cardiovascular disease.
  327. CHRNA4 and tobacco dependence: from gene regulation to treatment outcome.
  328. Translational research in medication development for nicotine dependence.
  329. Higher nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in menthol cigarette smokers with and without schizophrenia.
  330. Relationship of human toenail nicotine, cotinine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol to levels of these biomarkers in plasma and urine.
  331. Cigarette smoking and the personalization of irinotecan therapy.
  332. CYP2B6 genotype does not alter nicotine metabolism, plasma levels, or abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy.
  333. Genetic and environmental sources of variation in heart rate response to infused nicotine in twins.
  334. Identification of novel CYP2A6*1B variants: the CYP2A6*1B allele is associated with faster in vivo nicotine metabolism.
  335. Genetic nondiscrimination legislation: a critical prerequisite for pharmacogenomics data sharing.
  336. Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study.
  337. Modeling the relationship of cotinine and self-reported measures of maternal smoking during pregnancy: a deterministic approach.
  338. The pharmacogenetics research network: from SNP discovery to clinical drug response.
  339. Urine nicotine metabolites and smoking behavior in a multiracial/multiethnic national sample of young adults.
  340. Determination of phenolic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine as their pentafluorobenzyl ether derivatives using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
  341. Population pharmacokinetics of nicotine and its metabolites I. Model development.
  342. Prediction methods for nicotine clearance using cotinine and 3-hydroxy-cotinine spot saliva samples II. Model application.
  343. Cotinine levels in relation to smoking behavior and addiction in young adolescent smokers.
  344. Nicotine, cotinine, withdrawal, and craving patterns during smoking and nicotine nasal spray use: results from a pilot study with African American men.
  345. The variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children: implications for measuring ETS exposure.
  346. Nicotine intake and dose response when smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes.
  347. Pharmacogenomics: challenges and opportunities.
  348. CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine.
  349. Effect of grapefruit juice on cytochrome P450 2A6 and nicotine renal clearance.
  350. Evaluation of urinary trans-3'-hydroxycotinine as a biomarker of children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
  351. Cotinine concentration in smokers from different countries: relationship with amount smoked and cigarette type.
  352. Determinants of the rate of nicotine metabolism and effects on smoking behavior.
  353. Exposure to second-hand smoke air pollution assessed from bar patrons' urinary cotinine.
  354. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and ethanol effects and interactions in humans.
  355. Menthol cigarettes, smoking cessation, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary function: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.
  356. Anabasine toxicity from a topical folk remedy.
  357. Guidelines on nicotine dose selection for in vivo research.
  358. Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products.
  359. Salivary cotinine concentration versus self-reported cigarette smoking: Three patterns of inconsistency in adolescence.
  360. Intraindividual variability of plasma antioxidants, markers of oxidative stress, C-reactive protein, cotinine, and other biomarkers.
  361. Within-subject variation of the salivary 3HC/COT ratio in regular daily smokers: prospects for estimating CYP2A6 enzyme activity in large-scale surveys of nicotine metabolic rate.
  362. Mutagen sensitivity has high heritability: evidence from a twin study.
  363. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes.
  364. A genome-wide screen for nicotine dependence susceptibility loci.
  365. Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts efficacy of transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation.
  366. Female sex and oral contraceptive use accelerate nicotine metabolism.
  367. Smoking habits, nicotine use, and congenital malformations.
  368. Characterization of the novel CYP2A6*21 allele using in vivo nicotine kinetics.
  369. Caffeine metabolites in umbilical cord blood, cytochrome P-450 1A2 activity, and intrauterine growth restriction.
  370. Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products.
  371. Impact of CYP2A6 genotype on pretreatment smoking behaviour and nicotine levels from and usage of nicotine replacement therapy.
  372. Ethnic differences in nicotine metabolic rate among New Zealanders.
  373. Support for previously identified alcoholism susceptibility Loci in a cohort selected for smoking behavior.
  374. Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans.
  375. Effect of pregnancy on a measure of FMO3 activity.
  376. Increased nicotine and cotinine levels in smokers with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder is not a metabolic effect.
  377. Carcinogen exposure during short-term switching from regular to "light" cigarettes.
  378. Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana combinations.
  379. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.
  380. Influence of menstrual cycle on cytochrome P450 2A6 activity and cardiovascular effects of nicotine.
  381. Mechanistic pharmacokinetic modelling of ephedrine, norephedrine and caffeine in healthy subjects.
  382. Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine.
  383. Nicotine metabolism: the impact of CYP2A6 on estimates of additive genetic influence.
  384. Caffeine-herbal ephedra combination increases resting energy expenditure, heart rate and blood pressure.
  385. Effect of menthol on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of felodipine in healthy subjects.
  386. Determinants of salivary cotinine levels among current smokers in Mexico.
  387. Cigarette smoking and infection.
  388. Clarification of SRNT workgroup guidelines for measures in clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies.
  389. Pharmacogenetics of nicotine metabolism in twins: methods and procedures.
  390. Nicotine metabolite ratio as an index of cytochrome P450 2A6 metabolic activity.
  391. Reducing tobacco addiction through tobacco product regulation.
  392. Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism.
  393. Concentrations of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine in commercial dietary supplements.
  394. Determination of ephedra alkaloid and caffeine concentrations in dietary supplements and biological fluids.
  395. Enhanced stimulant and metabolic effects of combined ephedrine and caffeine.
  396. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy.
  397. Individualizing nicotine replacement therapy for the treatment of tobacco dependence: a randomized trial.
  398. Bupropion in breast milk: an exposure assessment for potential treatment to prevent post-partum tobacco use.
  399. High rates of sustained smoking cessation in women hospitalized with cardiovascular disease: the Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS).
  400. Smoking less as a treatment goal for those who cannot stop smoking.
  401. Central terminals of nociceptors are targets for nicotine suppression of inflammation.
  402. Clonidine for smoking cessation.
  403. The functional mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) Asn40Asp variant predicts short-term response to nicotine replacement therapy in a clinical trial.
  404. Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism.
  405. Tobacco use and dependence.
  406. Environmental and genetic determinants of tobacco use: methodology for a multidisciplinary, longitudinal family-based investigation.
  407. Nicotine metabolite ratio as a predictor of cigarette consumption.
  408. Vagal modulation of spinal nicotine-induced inhibition of the inflammatory response mediated by descending antinociceptive controls.
  409. Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
  410. Influence of menthol on caffeine disposition and pharmacodynamics in healthy female volunteers.
  411. Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology and implications for treatment.
  412. Individual differences in nicotine intake per cigarette.
  413. Determinants of salivary cotinine concentrations in Chinese male smokers.
  414. Once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides: how much monitoring is truly required?
  415. Basic cardiovascular research and its implications for the medicinal use of nicotine.
  416. Does menthol enhance the addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research.
  417. Vitamin C supplementation decreases oxidative stress biomarker f2-isoprostanes in plasma of nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.
  418. Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy.
  419. Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS V): under-use of nicotine replacement therapy.
  420. Modeling nicotine arterial-venous differences to predict arterial concentrations and input based on venous measurements: application to smokeless tobacco and nicotine gum.
  421. Smoking cessation trials targeted to racial and economic minority groups.
  422. Cardiovascular effects of nasal and transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking.
  423. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: a review.
  424. Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use.
  425. Accelerated metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in pregnant smokers.
  426. Systemic absorption of topical lidocaine in normal volunteers, patients with post-herpetic neuralgia, and patients with acute herpes zoster.
  427. Acute aortic dissection related to crack cocaine.
  428. The effects of cannabinoids on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir and nelfinavir.
  429. Influence of arterial vs. venous sampling site on nicotine tolerance model selection and parameter estimation.
  430. Slower metabolism and reduced intake of nicotine from cigarette smoking in Chinese-Americans.
  431. Reducing tobacco harm: research challenges and issues.
  432. Deficient C-oxidation of nicotine continued.
  433. Cardiovascular effects of carbon monoxide and cigarette smoking.
  434. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters pulmonary function in newborn rhesus monkeys.
  435. Predictors of cotinine levels in US children: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
  436. Safety of nicotine in smokers with hypertension.
  437. Endogenous opioids suppress activation of nociceptors by sub-nanomolar nicotine.
  438. Systemic nicotine exposure in tobacco harvesters.
  439. Risks and benefits of nicotine to aid smoking cessation in pregnancy.
  440. Trans-3'-hydroxycotinine: disposition kinetics, effects and plasma levels during cigarette smoking.
  441. Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids.
  442. Simultaneous determination of mecamylamine, nicotine, and cotinine in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
  443. Clinical pharmacology of oral cotinine.
  444. Nasal mucosal versus gastrointestinal absorption of nasally administered cocaine.
  445. Nicotine blood levels and subjective craving for cigarettes.
  446. Nicotine-mecamylamine interactions.
  447. Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on nicotine and cotinine metabolism.
  448. Nicotine metabolism and elimination kinetics in newborns.
  449. Safety of intra-amniotic digoxin administration before late second-trimester abortion by dilation and evacuation.
  450. Nicotine impairs endothelium-dependent dilatation in human veins in vivo.
  451. Diagnosis and treatment of nicotine dependence with emphasis on nicotine replacement therapy. A status report.
  452. Clonidine for smoking cessation.
  453. Influence of age on the thermic response to caffeine in women.
  454. The use of pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation during pregnancy.
  455. Ethnic differences in N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine.
  456. Snuff, nicotine and cardiovascular disease: implications for tobacco control.
  457. Coffee, alcohol, and the liver.
  458. Nicotine addiction.
  459. Disposition kinetics and effects of menthol.
  460. Drug interactions with tobacco smoking. An update.
  461. Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
  462. Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes.
  463. Caffeine consumption and menstrual function.
  464. Occasional smoking in a study of premenopausal women.
  465. The biology of nicotine dependence: from the 1988 Surgeon General's Report to the present and into the future.
  466. Suppression of nicotine intake during ad libitum cigarette smoking by high-dose transdermal nicotine.
  467. Relationship of blood pressure, heart rate and behavioral mood state to norepinephrine kinetics in younger and older men following caffeine ingestion.
  468. Gender differences in the pharmacology of nicotine addiction.
  469. Clinical pharmacology of nicotine.
  470. Caffeine withdrawal in normal school-age children.
  471. Nicotine metabolism and intake in black and white smokers.
  472. Dose-related cardiovascular and endocrine effects of transdermal nicotine.
  473. Effects of stress on circulating nicotine and cotinine levels and in vitro nicotine metabolism in the rat.
  474. Importance of chronopharmacokinetics in design and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery systems.
  475. Rate of caffeine metabolism and risk of spontaneous abortion.
  476. Evaluation of pharmacokinetic methods used to estimate caffeine clearance and comparison with a Bayesian forecasting method.
  477. Effects of cotinine on information processing in nonsmokers.
  478. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.
  479. Birthing of clinical pharmacologists.
  480. Nicotine content of the eclipse nicotine delivery device.
  481. Treating tobacco addiction--nicotine or no nicotine?
  482. Arteriovenous differences in plasma concentration of nicotine and catecholamines and related cardiovascular effects after smoking, nicotine nasal spray, and intravenous nicotine.
  483. Caffeinated beverages, decaffeinated coffee, and spontaneous abortion.
  484. Systemic absorption and effects of nicotine from smokeless tobacco.
  485. Absorption kinetics of misoprostol with oral or vaginal administration.
  486. Nicotine patch therapy in smoking cessation reduces the extent of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia.
  487. The role of nicotine in smoking-related cardiovascular disease.
  488. Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: implications for nicotine replacement therapy.
  489. Cotinine effects on nicotine metabolism.
  490. Pharmacodynamics of acute tolerance to multiple nicotinic effects in humans.
  491. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.
  492. Saliva cotinine levels as a function of collection method.
  493. Sources of variability in nicotine and cotinine levels with use of nicotine nasal spray, transdermal nicotine, and cigarette smoking.
  494. Contribution of adrenal hormones to nicotine-induced inhibition of synovial plasma extravasation in the rat.
  495. Determinants of plasma concentrations of nicotine and cotinine during cigarette smoking and transdermal nicotine treatment.
  496. Individual differences in nicotine kinetics and metabolism in humans.
  497. What should be the elements of any settlement with the tobacco industry?
  498. Chronopharmacokinetics of nicotine.
  499. Orthostatic hypertension due to vascular adrenergic hypersensitivity.
  500. The benefits of stopping smoking and the role of nicotine replacement therapy in older patients.
  501. CYP2D6 phenotype and the metabolism of nicotine and cotinine.
  502. Neural and endocrine circuits mediating inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by subcutaneous and spinal-intrathecal nicotine.
  503. The effect of liver disease on urine caffeine metabolite ratios.
  504. Individualizing medical treatment for tobacco dependence.
  505. Recurrent non-Q-wave myocardial infarction associated with toluene abuse.
  506. Validation of urine caffeine metabolite ratios with use of stable isotope-labeled caffeine clearance.
  507. Absorption rate of methylxanthines following capsules, cola and chocolate.
  508. Cotinine as a biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
  509. Marijuana and hyperthermia.
  510. Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction and therapeutics.
  511. Predictors of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients.
  512. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.
  513. Smoking cessation and the nicotine patch: much more to be done.
  514. Sympathomimetic effects of paraxanthine and caffeine in humans.
  515. Cigarette smoking sensitizes and desensitizes impedance-measured ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood.
  516. Is clonidine an effective smoking cessation therapy?
  517. Effects of caffeine ingestion on NE kinetics, fat oxidation, and energy expenditure in younger and older men.
  518. Nicotine patches.
  519. Deficient C-oxidation of nicotine.
  520. Cigarettes and addiction.
  521. Is serum cotinine a better measure of cigarette smoking than self-report?
  522. Re: "Alcohol, smoking, coffee, and cirrhosis" and "coffee and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase: a study of self-defense officials in Japan".
  523. Metabolic interactions between surplus dietary energy intake and cigarette smoking or its cessation.
  524. Metabolism of nicotine to cotinine studied by a dual stable isotope method.
  525. Caffeine and coffee: effects on health and cardiovascular disease.
  526. Re: "Inconsistent associations of caffeine-containing beverages with blood pressure and with lipoproteins: the CARDIA Study".
  527. Role of vagal afferents and spinal pathways modulating inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by intrathecal nicotine.
  528. A proposal to develop meaningful labeling for cigarettes.
  529. Establishing a nicotine threshold for addiction. The implications for tobacco regulation.
  530. Divergent tolerance to metabolic and cardiovascular effects of nicotine in smokers with low and high levels of cigarette consumption.
  531. Environmental tobacco smoke hazards and benefits of work-site nonsmoking programs.
  532. A low dose of subcutaneous nicotine improves information processing in non-smokers.
  533. Seizures associated with poisoning and drug overdose.
  534. Caffeine effects on learning, performance, and anxiety in normal school-age children.
  535. Effects of cigarette smoking and its cessation on lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in heavy smokers.
  536. Nicotine metabolic profile in man: comparison of cigarette smoking and transdermal nicotine.
  537. Seizures associated with poisoning and drug overdose.
  538. Stereoselective metabolism of (S)-(-)-nicotine in humans: formation of trans-(S)-(-)-nicotine N-1'-oxide.
  539. Nicotine effects on eicosanoid formation and hemostatic function: comparison of transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking.
  540. Saliva nicotine as an index of plasma levels in nicotine skin patch users.
  541. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for determination of anabasine, anatabine and other tobacco alkaloids in urine of smokers and smokeless tobacco users.
  542. Bioavailability and absorption kinetics of nicotine following application of a transdermal system.
  543. Smoking-induced coronary vasoconstriction: implications for therapeutic use of nicotine.
  544. Clinical significance of genetic influences on cardiovascular drug metabolism.
  545. Higher levels of nicotine in arterial than in venous blood after cigarette smoking.
  546. Altered patterns of drug metabolism in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  547. Nicotine and cotinine elimination pharmacokinetics in smokers and nonsmokers.
  548. The chronic infusion of nicotine into the developing chick embryo does not alter the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine-binding sites or vestibular function.
  549. Adrenal medullary modulation of the inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by intrathecal nicotine.
  550. Nicotine replacement therapy. What has been accomplished--can we do better?
  551. A clinical pharmacological study of subcutaneous nicotine.
  552. Clinical pharmacology and toxicology of cocaine.
  553. Hydroxocobalamin as a cyanide antidote: safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics in heavily smoking normal volunteers.
  554. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of caffeine: tolerance to pressor effects.
  555. Determination of the nicotine metabolite trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in urine of smokers using gas chromatography with nitrogen-selective detection or selected ion monitoring.
  556. Chronically administered nicotine attenuates bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation and aggravates arthritis-induced joint injury in the rat.
  557. Orthostatic hypotension in ciguatera fish poisoning.
  558. The genetics of drug dependence: tobacco addiction.
  559. Intravenous nicotine retards transdermal absorption of nicotine: evidence of blood flow--limited percutaneous absorption.
  560. Metabolism of nicotine by human liver microsomes: stereoselective formation of trans-nicotine N'-oxide.
  561. Sympathoadrenal contribution to nicotinic and muscarinic modulation of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat.
  562. Workshop on problem-based learning as a method for teaching clinical pharmacology and therapeutics in medical school.
  563. Cardiotoxicity in the workplace.
  564. Cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction.
  565. Smokeless tobacco, cardiovascular risk factors, and nicotine and cotinine levels in professional baseball players.
  566. How toxic is cocaine?
  567. Misclassification of smoking status by self-reported cigarette consumption.
  568. National working conference on smoking and body weight. Task Force 2: Methods of assessment, strategies for research.
  569. Nicotine elimination and tolerance in non-dependent cigarette smokers.
  570. Nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy.
  571. Basic and clinical psychopharmacology of nicotine.
  572. Nicotine and coronary heart disease.
  573. Poisoning due to calcium antagonists. Experience with verapamil, diltiazem and nifedipine.
  574. Nicotine metabolism in humans.
  575. Stable isotope method for studying transdermal drug absorption: the nicotine patch.
  576. Amiloride improves hemodynamics in patients with chronic congestive heart failure treated with chronic digoxin and diuretics.
  577. Disposition kinetics and metabolism of nicotine-1'-N-oxide in rabbits.
  578. Pharmacodynamics of nicotine: implications for rational treatment of nicotine addiction.
  579. Selected ion monitoring method for determination of nicotine, cotinine and deuterium-labeled analogs: absence of an isotope effect in the clearance of (S)-nicotine-3',3'-d2 in humans.
  580. Elevated nicotine levels in cervical lavages from passive smokers.
  581. Stable isotope studies of nicotine kinetics and bioavailability.
  582. Effects of caffeine with repeated dosing.
  583. Poisoning due to class IA antiarrhythmic drugs. Quinidine, procainamide and disopyramide.
  584. Nicotine metabolism in nonsmokers.
  585. Oral therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A controlled trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus trimethoprim-dapsone.
  586. Apparent underreporting of cigarette consumption among Mexican American smokers.
  587. Dose-dependency of caffeine metabolism with repeated dosing.
  588. Intravenous nicotine replacement suppresses nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.
  589. Cocaine.
  590. Smokeless tobacco use and health effects among baseball players.
  591. Synthesis of (3'R,5'S)-trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine. Metabolic formation of 3'-hydroxycotinine in humans is highly stereoselective.
  592. Diagnosis and management of pheochromocytoma.
  593. Effect of chronic caffeine administration on monoamine and monoamine metabolite concentrations in rat brain.
  594. Influence of race, tobacco use, and caffeine use on the relation between blood pressure and blood lead concentration.
  595. Arterial-venous differences in plasma concentrations of nicotine after cigarette smoking.
  596. Nicotine exposure among nondependent smokers.
  597. Determination of nornicotine in smokers' urine by gas chromatography following reductive alkylation to N'-propylnornicotine.
  598. Clinical pharmacology of caffeine.
  599. Clinical pharmacology of inhaled drugs of abuse: implications in understanding nicotine dependence.
  600. Cocaine smokers excrete a pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester.
  601. Pharmacoepidemiology of the effect of caffeine on blood pressure.
  602. Pharmacokinetic considerations in understanding nicotine dependence.
  603. Pheochromocytoma.
  604. Caffeine and cigarette smoking: behavioral, cardiovascular, and metabolic interactions.
  605. Inverse relation between serum cotinine concentration and blood pressure in cigarette smokers.
  606. Poisoning due to class 1B antiarrhythmic drugs. Lignocaine, mexiletine and tocainide.
  607. Effects of passive smoking on theophylline clearance.
  608. Sulfonium salts as derivatizing agents. 2. Determination of theophylline in plasma by automated gas chromatography.
  609. Toxicologic causes of acute abdominal disorders.
  610. Daily use of smokeless tobacco: systemic effects.
  611. Food and nicotine metabolism.
  612. Health and public policy implications of the "low yield" cigarette.
  613. Diabetic patients and hepatic drug metabolism.
  614. Persistent increase in caffeine concentrations in people who stop smoking.
  615. Dapsone, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole plasma levels during treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Evidence of drug interactions.
  616. Effects of nicotine gum and tobacco smoking on human avoidance responding.
  617. Changes in food intake and activity after quitting smoking.
  618. Are smokers trying to stop and smokers not trying to stop the same experimental model?
  619. Nicotine dependence and tolerance in man: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigations.
  620. Nicotine gum and theophylline metabolism.
  621. Drug therapy. Pharmacologic aspects of cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction.
  622. Sodium intake from smokeless tobacco.
  623. Nicotine absorption and cardiovascular effects with smokeless tobacco use: comparison with cigarettes and nicotine gum.
  624. Nicotine and smokeless tobacco.
  625. Cotinine in the serum, saliva, and urine of nonsmokers, passive smokers, and active smokers.
  626. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: implications for noninvasive measurement of tobacco smoke exposure.
  627. Changes in rate and pattern of caffeine metabolism after cigarette abstinence.
  628. Disposition kinetics of nicotine and cotinine enantiomers in rabbits and beagle dogs.
  629. Pheochromocytoma--recent advances in diagnosis and treatment.
  630. Recent studies of nicotine metabolism in humans.
  631. Nicotine gum: chew rate, subjective effects and plasma nicotine.
  632. Effects of the stereoisomers of nicotine and nornicotine on schedule-controlled responding and physiological parameters of dogs.
  633. Cardiovascular effects of smoking in patients with ischemic heart disease.
  634. Pharmacodynamic model of tolerance: application to nicotine.
  635. Toxicity of nicotine: implications with regard to nicotine replacement therapy.
  636. Identification and quantitative analysis of cotinine-N-oxide in human urine.
  637. Brain phenobarbital uptake during prolonged status epilepticus.
  638. Apparent tolerance to the acute effect of nicotine results in part from distribution kinetics.
  639. Electrophysiologic effects of cigarette smoking in patients with and without chronic beta-blocker therapy.
  640. Spontaneous cigarette brand switching: consequences for nicotine and carbon monoxide exposure.
  641. Nicotine gum and behavioral treatment: a placebo controlled trial.
  642. The effect of cigarette smoking on penile erection.
  643. Determination of benzoylecgonine and cocaine in biologic fluids by automated gas chromatography.
  644. Prolonged absorption with development of tolerance to toxic effects after cutaneous exposure to nicotine.
  645. Cigarette abstinence, nicotine gum, and theophylline disposition.
  646. Determinants of nicotine intake while chewing nicotine polacrilex gum.
  647. Influence of tobacco abstinence on the disposition kinetics and effects of nicotine.
  648. Mouth versus deep airways absorption of nicotine in cigarette smokers.
  649. Influence of smoking fewer cigarettes on exposure to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide.
  650. Hyperthermia associated with drug intoxication.
  651. Additive cardiovascular effects of nicotine and ethanol.
  652. Determination of nicotine N-oxide by gas chromatography following thermal conversion to 2-methyl-6-(3-pyridyl)tetrahydro-1,2-oxazine.
  653. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes.
  654. Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning. Management of arrhythmias.
  655. Status epilepticus: divergence of sympathetic activity and cardiovascular response.
  656. Clinical pharmacology of nicotine.
  657. Nicotine and smoking relapse.
  658. Influence of the blood-brain pH gradient on brain phenobarbital uptake during status epilepticus.
  659. Theophylline overdose: acute single ingestion versus chronic repeated overmedication.
  660. Nicotine renal excretion rate influences nicotine intake during cigarette smoking.
  661. Atrioventricular conduction block caused by phenylpropanolamine.
  662. Propranolol antagonism of phenylpropanolamine-induced hypertension.
  663. Altered methadone pharmacokinetics in methadone-maintained pregnant women.
  664. Nicotine gum and behavioral treatment in smoking cessation.
  665. Trazodone-oral cocaine interactions.
  666. Environmental and drug-induced hyperthermia. Pathophysiology, recognition, and management.
  667. Ion-pair extraction of thiocyanate from plasma and its gas chromatographic determination using on-column alkylation.
  668. Nicotine and carbon monoxide intake from high- and low-yield cigarettes.
  669. Two-year efficacy and safety of rapid smoking therapy in patients with cardiac and pulmonary disease.
  670. Efficacy and mechanism of action of sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of desipramine toxicity in rats.
  671. Influence of nicotine on cardiovascular and hormonal effects of cigarette smoking.
  672. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations in drug therapy of cardiac emergencies.
  673. Antihypertensive therapy with diltiazem and comparison with hydrochlorothiazide.
  674. Blood cotinine levels as indicators of smoking treatment outcome.
  675. Daily intake of nicotine during cigarette smoking.
  676. Determination of cocaine in plasma by automated gas chromatography.
  677. Motor paralysis increases brain uptake of lidocaine during status epilepticus.
  678. Changes in plasma catecholamines after tonic-clonic seizures.
  679. Monotherapy in mild to moderate hypertension: comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, propranolol and prazosin.
  680. Benefit of hemoperfusion in acute theophylline intoxication.
  681. Unchanged absorption of digoxin tablets in patients with cardiac failure.
  682. Relationship of duration of analgesia to opioid pharmacokinetic variables.
  683. (--)-alpha-Acetylmethadol effects on alcohol and diazepam use, sexual function and cardiac function.
  684. Cotinine disposition and effects.
  685. Management of cocaine poisoning.
  686. Normotensive pheochromocytoma. Pharmacologic, paraneoplastic and anesthetic considerations.
  687. Smokers of low-yield cigarettes do not consume less nicotine.
  688. Treatment of theophylline overdose.
  689. Passive absorption of nicotine in airline flight attendants.
  690. Late complications of tricyclic antidepressant overdose.
  691. How a cigarette is smoked determines blood nicotine levels.
  692. The use of biologic fluid samples in assessing tobacco smoke consumption.
  693. Circadian blood nicotine concentrations during cigarette smoking.
  694. Massive catecholamine release from caffeine poisoning.
  695. Interindividual variability in the metabolism and cardiovascular effects of nicotine in man.
  696. Gas chromatographic analysis of meperidine and normeperidine: determination in blood after a single dose of meperidine.
  697. Increased brain uptake of lidocaine during bicuculline-induced status epilepticus in rats.
  698. Lack of effect of diazepam on methadone metabolism in methadone-maintained addicts.
  699. Acute vasodilator therapy increases renal clearance of digoxin in patients with congestive heart failure.
  700. Determination of methadone and its primary metabolite in biologic fluids using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection.
  701. Cardiovascular and metabolic considerations in prolonged cannabinoid administration in man.
  702. Clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence.
  703. Plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations in habitual smokeless tobacco users.
  704. Presystemic metabolism of meperidine to normeperidine in normal and cirrhotic subjects.
  705. Pharmacokinetics of drug overdose.
  706. Phenytoin-induced methadone withdrawal.
  707. The cardiovascular and autonomic effects of repeated administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol to rhesus monkeys.
  708. Improved gas chromatographic method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in biologic fluids.
  709. Diabetes mellitus and orthostatic hypotension resulting from ingestion of Vacor rat poison: endocrine and autonomic function studies.
  710. Disposition kinetics and effects of intravenous nicotine.
  711. Enhanced bioavailability of pethidine and pentazocine in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.
  712. Methadone-disulfiram interaction during methadone maintenance.
  713. Metabolic and psychophysiologic studies of cannabidiol-hexobarbital interaction.
  714. Dihydroergotamine treatment for orthostatic hypotension from Vacor rodenticide.
  715. Resin hemoperfusion for ethchlorvynol.
  716. Resin hemoperfusion in ethychlorvynol overdose.
  717. An abstinence syndrome following chronic administration of delta-9-terahydrocannabinol in rhesus monkeys.
  718. Pharmacokinetics of haemoperfusion for drug overdose.
  719. Effect of disulfiram on cognition, subjective response, and cortical-event-related potentials in nonalcoholic subjects.
  720. Diazepam kinetics in acute alcohol withdrawal.
  721. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: autonomic nervous mechanisms.
  722. Effect of disulfiram on adrenergic function.
  723. Dissociation of autonomic and cognitive effects of THC in man.
  724. Peritoneal clearance and total body elimination of vancomycin during chronic intermittent peritoneal dialysis.
  725. Cardiopulmonary catastrophes in drug-overdosed patients.
  726. Hypertensive emergencies.
  727. Clinical pharmacokinetics of lignocaine.
  728. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on drug distribution and metabolism. Antipyrine, pentobarbital, and ethanol.
  729. Prolonged delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ingestion. Effects of sympathomimetic amines and autonomic blockades.
  730. Pharmacokinetics in patients with cardiac failure.
  731. Phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation in humans receiving delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
  732. Depression of growth hormone and cortisol response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia after prolonged oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration in man.
  733. Gestational differences in lidocaine toxicity in the fetal lamb.
  734. Clinical studies of cannabis tolerance and dependence.
  735. Phencyclidine poisoning.
  736. Cardiovascular effects of prolonged delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ingestion.
  737. Letter: "Post hoc" and hypoprothrombinemia.
  738. Lidocaine disposition kinetics in monkey and man. I. Prediction by a perfusion model.
  739. Lidocaine disposition kinetics in monkey and man. II. Effects of hemorrhage and sympathomimetic drug administration.
  740. Effects of lidocaine on heart rate, blood pressure, and electrocorticogram in fetal sheep.
  741. Electrophysiologic effects of procaine amide in patients with intraventricular conduction delay.
  742. Clinical applications of the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine.
  743. Determination of lidocaine in blood and tissues.
  744. Calcium binding to phosphoprotein in estrogenized rooster plasma studied by density-gradient centrifugation.